1.5 % of original length .
- Excessive chain vibration and noise.
- Power loss in all units, indicated [by Power Card].
- Late injection, low Pmax, [by Draw Card].
- Late closing of Exhaust Valve, [by Light Spring Diagram].
- High exhaust temperature and smoke.
- Impose heavy mechanical load, resulting fatigue failure.
- Damage to chain system and engine frame.
- Retardation of Fuel Pump and Exhaust Valve timings, resulting:
- Reduced Scavenge Efficiency due to late closing of exhaust valve.
- High exhaust temperature and smoke, due to after burning.
- Low Pmax, due to late injection.
- Reduced engine power