Friday, July 31, 2020

Port of Refuse

Port of refuse is a port or a place that vessels divert to when her master considers it unsafe to continue the voyage due to peril that threatens the common safety
  • Situation in which u call a port of refuge are
  • Dangerous shift of cargo
  • Serious breakdown of machinery
  • Serious fire on board
  • Shortage of bunkers
  • Rough weather
  • Collision
  • Grounding
  • Any other damage affecting seaworthiness of vessel
As soon as the decision is taken to discontinue the voyage and make for a place for refuge, inform the owner and the charterer (if any) stating the reasons for deviation. Give relevant details to attending superintendent. He will inform the necessary insurance manager and class.
  1. Record the ship’s position. Sound tanks for quantity for bunker on board. From the point until departure from the port of refuge, keep accurate records of events and expenditure.
  2. Request the owner to arrange the appointment of an agent at the port of refuge to handle the vessel’s visit.
  3. Call the agent as soon as his identity is known. Pass ETA and information necessary for making preparation for vessel’s arrival, including tonnage, length, flag, P&I club, classification society etc. 
Request the agent to notify :-
  • Port state administration if vessel is damaged or seaworthiness is affected.
  • Harbor master or port authority.
  • Pilot station, linesman, boatman, customs, port health etc.
  • Local correspondent of the owner’s P&I club.


Thursday, July 30, 2020

Engineroom Crane safeties

  • Limit switch for all 6 directions-fwd, aft, port, starboard, lowering and hoisting.
  • Mechanical stoppers in case limit switch fails.
  • Overload trip.
  • Electromagnetic brake. Release by availability of electric power.- Fail safe arrangement
  • Rail guard over the pulley
  • Mechanical locking arrangement for rough weather
  • Locking arrangement and hook for safe carriage of load.
  • Clear marking of Safe working load on crane.
  • Breakers at various places. One in engine room and another in ECR.
  • It shall be operate in 50 list and 20 trim.

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Wednesday, July 29, 2020

What are the checks carried out after Over speed trip? .

  • Check over speed device.
  • Check governor
  • Check fuel pump rack
  • Open crankcase and check the condition inside 
  • Check bottom end bolts. It is better to change them once over speed trip has taken place. 
  • Over speed limits for AE-15% and for ME-20%


Tuesday, July 28, 2020


Piston ring scuffing is consists of local micro welding, or material adhesion, between a piston ring and a cylinder liner. Various causes of Scuffing are following

Lack of Lubrication
If the engine doesn't have enough oil, the cylinders will not be properly lubricated. As the ring rubs against the liner of the cylinder, dry spots will cause it to scuff. Symptoms of scuffed piston rings include dirty exhaust and excessive oil consumption.
Engine Dry Starts
If an engine has sat idle for even a short time, it may have a "dry start" when next used. This occurs because the existing lubricant sheen in the engine has dried up, and these dry parts of the engine run without lubricant in the first few seconds after the engine starts before lubricant is fully circulated. If an engine is dry-started after a new piston ring is installed, scuffing could result. To avoid this, lubricate the ring before installing it or add a secondary engine oiler that squirts oil into the engine before start-up.
Liner Surface Glaze
Engine cylinders that are overheated by insufficient lubrication can break down the little bit of oil that is present, which then accumulates as a glaze on the interior of the cylinder. This glaze can scuff the edges of a piston ring as it scrapes by, as the glaze won't allow oil to flow properly in the cylinder. Getting rid of this may require a professional reconditioning of the cylinder.
Liner Roundness Faults
If the liner of a cylinder is uneven, some points will rub against the piston ring and cause it to scuff. Here, too, a reconditioning of the cylinder may be necessary.


Monday, July 27, 2020

4-stroke connecting rod Specialty.

  • Big end and big end bearings are of split type
  • Big end is in an oblique direction to reduce the width of big end, reduce the load on bolts and increase the crankpin diameter
  • Top end is having bush type bearing
  • Rectangular or I-shaped is expensive to manufacture but necessary to resist high transverse inertia whip load, gas loads and to fulfill the weight to strength requirement
  • Connecting rod is forged from Magnesium Molybdenum.
  • Edges are serrated
  •  It is subjected to high compressive and low tensile bending stress as well as of axial type
  •  It connects crank pin direct to gudgeon pin


Sunday, July 26, 2020

Boiler Bulging

  • Formation of layer of scales on the furnace wall at the water side can cause overheating and bulging defect on the furnace shell.
  • Bulging in water tube is due to calcium scale deposition on tube walls which cause improper heat transfer.
  • In smoke tube due to carbon deposits bulging is caused.
  • Low water level in boiler.
  • Misalignment of burner can cause overheating which will further cause bulging.


Saturday, July 25, 2020

Hydrophore pump short cycling.

  • Pressure switch faulty- check pressure switch
  • Pressure switch wrongly set
  • Non return valve after pump leaking, hence water under pressure going back to storage tank- that would be indicated by monitoring of the concerned pump if reverse rotation is taking place.
  • Check on/off controller from pump main panel-contacts opening/closing
  • Check if system is overcharged
  • Check if system in undercharged- Since water is incompressible as soon as water is filled up pressure rises but just on little consumption pressure will drop drastically and pump restarts
  • Check for any air leaks
  • Faulty automatic air volume control
  • Not enough water in tank due to clogged pipelines
  • Air  leaking from relief valve
  • Tank is about to empty


Friday, July 24, 2020

Actions in case of Main Engine liner cracked

The engine cannot be run long in this condition. The leaking water is finding its way into the lubricating oil. The liner has to be changed.
The most logical step to take then is to isolate the faulty cylinder. It can be done.
  • Stop engine, isolate systems and allow to cool
  • Ensure a procedure is written that minimises the risk to personnel during the operation.
  • Discuss the task and written procedure with the engine room personnel to ensure they are familiar with the risks, and the methods to be used to minimise these risks.
  • Ensure the fuel pump is de-activated by lifting roller and locking.
  • Lift exhaust valve actuators so exhaust valve remains closed during running. (Note: the air spring supply to be left open)
  • Dismantle air start supply line, and blank with suitable steel plates, the main and control air pipes
  • Blank off main lube oil inlet to crosshead within the crankcase with a blanking plate.
  • Isolate the cylinder lubricator for that cylinder by placing all lubricators on no stroke.
  • Blank cooling water inlet and oulet.
The usual practice is to open up the cylinder head, remove the piston, and close back the cylinder head. All the passages that are connected to other parts of the engine will have to be blanked, so that the whole cylinder is completely isolated from the engine systems.
Since there is no piston in one of the cylinders of the engine, the crankshaft will be temporarily off-balanced. The engine has to be run at a much slower speed to avoid excessive vibration and unnecessary stress that can cause further damage.


Thursday, July 23, 2020

Propeller slip

  • When the vessel is moving ahead the propeller exerts pressure on the water to create the forward motion. 
  • Propeller slip occurs because water is not a solid medium and there is some slip related to it.
  • Slip may be considered as the difference between the speed of the vessel and the speed of the engine. 
  • It is always expressed as a percentage.
Propeller Slip = Actual forward speed/ Theoretical forward speed.
  • The calculated value of slip will be increased when the wind and sea are ahead and if the vessel has a fouled bottom. 
  • The differing values of slip are especially noticeable after a vessel has been cleaned in drydock.
  • Theoretically a vessel should never have negative slip, but this may occur in one or more of the following conditions:--  A strong following sea.
                                                                         A following current or a strong following wind

How to find the Propeller Slip
Mean Apparent slip = Distance run by propeller - distance run by ship per day
                                                             Distance run by propeller

Distance run by propeller in nautical miles = Pitch(m) x total engine revolution per day


Wednesday, July 22, 2020

Engine room procedure to follow after grounding

The engineering staff may not be in a position to ascertain that the ship is aground and in normal circumstances will be informed by the bridge. However any grating noises along the ships hull in the machinery space should be considered a possible grounding or collision. In the event of grounding no attempt to re-float the ship will be made without first carrying out a thorough inspection to ascertain any damage.The following actions should be taken if the bridge informs the engine room that the ship is aground.

The initial response may be to Stop the Main Engine as quickly as possible and secure it, simultaneously with this start the Main Diesel Generator. Please note though with regard to the Main Engine it is our duty to obey Telegraph Orders as long as it possible and sensible to do so.
  • Stop and secure the steering gear, be aware that the Rudder may be aground/damaged.
  • Carry out a thorough inspection of the machinery space for structural damage and ingress of water. Due to the double bottom structure in the machinery space it may not be possible to see any structural damage clearly.
  • Sound all the machinery space tanks that have the ships hull forming part of there boundary. Careful when unscrewing any caps, as there might be water pressure present. This should include Fuel, Water, L.O. and double bottom tanks and dry spaces.
  • Inform the bridge of your findings and take further soundings at regular intervals.
  • Record all actions taken in the Engine Log book.
  • Check all sea inlets/outlets, their associated pumps and coolers are working correctly and not fouled.
  • Keep a close eye on the stern tube L.O. tank for loss of oil.
  • Engage turning gear and try to turn shaft. If any strain is shown by the turning gear it must be assumed that the propeller is also aground and the bridge informed of this. No further attempt to turn the shaft should be made until the propeller is clear. check crankshaft deflection to check bearing alignment.
  • A grounding could cause rapid fouling of Sea Suctions, Pumps and Coolers, with silt, resulting in a Blackout, as such the only power available would be that from the Diesel Generator and the Emergency Generator. Staff must be prepared to respond to situations and priorities which may change quickly.
When the ship is afloat and the engines are ready for use again a close eye should be kept on the shaft bearing and stern tube for
overheating or unusual vibrations in case the hull structure has been deformed, causing misalignment.

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Monday, July 20, 2020

Functional requirements for a Safety Management System (SMS)

Every company should develop, implement and maintain a Safety Management System (SMS) which includes the following functional requirements:
  • A safety and environmental protection policy;
  • Instructions and procedures to ensure safe operation of ships and protection of the environment in compliance with relevant international and flag State legislation;
  • Defined levels of authority and lines of communication between, and amongst, shore and shipboard personnel;
  • Procedures for reporting accidents and non-conformities with the provisions of this Code;
  • Procedures to prepare for and respond to emergency situations; and
  • Procedures for internal audits and management reviews.


Thursday, July 2, 2020

Variable Exhaust Valve Closing (VEC)

  • In order to optimise the exhaust valve operation over the normal load range, the closing point of the exhaust valve is changed over 70-85% x MCR. During VEC operation the exhaust valve is closed EARLIER which means that the compression stroke of the piston is increased. This will lead to higher compression pressures and temperatures.
  • For instance if the normal closage of the exhaust valve is 130o BTDC, and this gives a compression ratio of 10.6, then by closing the valve 10o earlier, the compression ratio will increase to 11.2, and the compression pressure will rise by 4 bar, for the same scavenge air/load setting.
  • The unit achieves this by leaking some of the oil contained in the high pressure pipe when the valve is in the OPEN position. This will cause the valve to slightly close, but will mean that the exhaust valve will be fully closed EARLIER than normal. Hence the piston can start to pressurise the cylinder contents earlier. The amount the valve closes is dependant on the position of the VEC shaft and eccentric mounted on the side of the exhaust valve actuator.


Certificate of registry. What all it contains.

  • Name of a ship
  • Port of registry
  • IMO number
  • Call sign
  • Type of vessel
  • Owner name and address
  • Registration number
  • Ship particular like gross and net tonnage, length, breadth, builder name, hull material, type of engine and its builder, power
  • Date of issue
  • Any mortage on ship in record page.


Ballast Water Managment plan

  • Ship particulars
  • Explain of ballast water management plan like purpose, usage, crew training, port state requirements
  • Ballast water tank, its line, pump capacity
  • Safety consideration like hazards in sequential method, condition under which Ballast water exchange shouldn't  be carried out.
  • Duties of ballast water management officer.
  • Control and disposal of sediment
  • Ballast water reporting form.
  • Crew training
  • Ballast water exchange procedure
  • Ballast water record book, BWTS


Steam trap

  • Steam is formed when water vaporizes to form a gas. 
  • This is done by giving latent heat of vaporization to water. 
  • By this water will convert into vapor. 
  • When the work is done (i.e. steam has given up its latent heat), steam condenses and becomes condensate. 
  • Now the condensate will not be able to work same as the steam. 
  • So now the thermal efficiency will reduce as efficient steam is mixed with the condensate.


Boiler Survey

  • Boilers are inspected to maintain the regulatory requirement.
  • Regular internal and external examination during such survey constitutes the preventive maintenance schedule the boiler goes through to have a safe working condition.
  • Boilers require to be surveyed at 2-year intervals until they are 8 years old, thereafter they become due for survey annually.
  • Discuss with Master and Chief Engineer to confirm time available, manpower and time required and steam requirement for next port.
  • Checks before shutting down boiler:
  • Sufficient spares (joints, packing, gauge glass, etc)
  • Past reports and manual for special attention need to be take care
  • Special Tools required
  • Meeting and brief with all engineers involved
  • Mark all valves, safety valve setting and spigot clearance
 Before shutting down boiler
  • Inform Chief engineer
  • Inform duty deck officer
  • Top up DO service tank
  • Change over M/E, A/E and boiler to Diesel oil
  • Stop all purifier
  • Shut all heating and tracing steam valve
  • Soot blow the boiler
 Shutting down Boiler
  • Change over to manual firing
  • Stop firing
  • Purge boiler for 5 minutes
  • Shut main steam stop valve
  • Switch off power, off the circuit breaker and remove fuses for FD fan, FO pumps, feed pumps and control panel.
  • Put a notice on the circuit breaker mentioned above
  • Shut all fuel valve and atomizing valve and lock them in shut position, blank the line if necessary
  • Allow boiler to cool down slowly
  • Scum blowdown follow by bottom blowdown when the boiler cooled
  • Open air vent when boiler pressure drop until 2 bar to prevent vacuum formation
  • Further cooling of boiler
  • Prepare to open top manhole door when boiler is cooled and at atmospheric pressure
  • Slacken the dog nut and secure manhole with rope
  • Knock manhole door gently with long stick. Do not open fully because hot steam or water might gush out.
  • Open full when is safe
  • Allow further cooling of boiler before open the bottom manhole door. This is to prevent thermal shock
  • Confirm no large quantities of hot water lying in the bottom
  • Open the bottom manhole door with the same precaution as with the top manhole door
  • Open the furnace door slowly
  • Ventilate the boiler both water and fire side for 12-24 hours
  • Enclose space entry permit obtained
  • Check Oxygen, flammable gas and toxic gas content
  • Prepare to entry
Preparation for entry
  • Prepare safety torch and safety hand lamp
  • Investigate from outside make sure it is clear from obstruction before entering boiler
  • Oxygen analyzer is carry with the person entered boiler
  • Personnel entering must wear all safety gears
  • Clear pocket contents and tools to be carried in a bag and accounted
  • A responsible engineer to be standby outside with clear emergency order
  • Keep breathing apparatus ready
  • Remain communication
  • Ensure proper lighting at all time
 Boiler Inspection
  • Thoroughly cleaned before boiler is surveyed
  • Wire brush and hose down may be sufficient to prepare for survey in well maintained boiler
  • Chipping off scale is necessary
  • If traces of oil are found in boiler, chemical means may have to be adopted to remove them
  • Route of inspection
Gas Side
  • Exterior of drums for signs of tube roll, leakage, corrosion, soot erosion and overheating
  • Condition of outside drum insulation
  • Drum seals for sign of air leakage
  • Inspect drum support for crack and expansion clearance
  • All blowdown connections for expansion and flexibility of support
  • All piping and valve for leaks
  • Water wall tubes and fins for crack
  • Exterior of all tubes for corrosion, carbon build up, erosion, blisters and sagging
  • Tubes near soot blowers for steam impingement
  • Condition of refractory
  • Around burner assembly, refractory and accumulation of soot or carbon
  • Soot blower for distortion, worn bearings, rubbing of tubes, condition of nozzles, cracks, freedom of movement and effective lubrication
 Water side
  • Steam drum for corrosion scaling and pitting
  • Manhole seats and surface
  • Condition of all fee, chemical feed, blowdown lines and inside pressure parts for choking, security and leaks
  • Tubes for corrosion, excessive deposits, flare cracking and pitting
  • Hand hole plates and stud threads
Safety Valve
  • Condition of valve internal parts for signs of corrosion, galling and wear
  • Check for pitting, crack, resiliency and condition of springs
  • Check spindle for straightness and adjusting ring thread for freedom of movement
  • Check discharge and drain piping
  • Check dampers to ensure that linkage are secured and well greased
  • Condition of burners, swirler and air register
  • Wind-box dampers and vanes for sign of corrosion and erosion
  • Check condition and operation of all valve
  • Check feed water controller and control valve connection lines and ensure proper functioning
  • Examine the foundation and bracing bolts of boiler for corrosion, fretting and rustin
  • Inspect internal surface to ensure they are clean
  • Counter check all tools are out from boiler
  • All opening of the mounting are cleaned properly
  • Mountings to be fixed back with new set of gasket/joint
  • Replace the header handhole and the bottom manhole door
  • Operate all mounting valves to ensure they work freely and leave all valves in close position
  • Replace top manhole door
  • Sootblower are correctly fitted
  • Air control dampers move freely for their full travel
Preparation flashing up:
  • Open gauge glass steam and water cocks and shut drain cock
  • Open vent, alarm and pressure gauge connection valve
  • Shut all drain valve
  • Switch on power for control panel, feed pump, FD fan and FO pump
  • Fill boiler with hot distilled treated water
  • Fill until water level below normal level
  • Check control air is available
Flashing Up
  • Start FD fan and purge boiler for 5 minutes
  • Start FO pump and check all parameters
  • Fire boiler with minimum firing ratio
  • Continue firing intermittently e.g. 1min. fire, stop 10min. for 1st hour, 2min fire, stop 10min. for 2nd hour and so on….
  • As boiler heats up, water level will rise to normal level, top up if necessary
  • Continue fire until a continuous stream of steam comes out from air vent
  • Shut air vent
  • Blow through gauge glass when boiler pressure raised
  • Open valve to remote level indicator
  • At 7 bar, all securing buts to be retighten
  • Open steam line drains to drain off condensate
Starting the boiler for a normal operation:
  • Warm up the steam line
  • Gag 1 safety valve, raise the steam pressure slowly and check safety valve operation and if need adjust it.
  • Repeat the procedure for other safety valve
  • Ensure no condensate at the drain line
  • Crack open main steam stop valve, slowly open until its full open
  • Keep firing as steady as possible
  • Check all safety cut outs and alarms before putting boiler on Auto
  • Final round check on boiler
  • Start tanks and tracing steam heating
  • Open steam to all heaters
  • Start all purifier
  • Change over from DO to HO for boiler and Generator
  •  M/E change over during departure
 EGE Safety valve
  • C/E to set the safety valve when the ship is at sea
  • Report to surveyor in writing to confirm safety valve operation


Wednesday, July 1, 2020

Shell Expansion Plan

  • It is a two dimensional drawing of a three dimensional surface of the ship’s hull form.
  • This plan is very useful for the following information:It is used for marking the location of a hull Damage on this plan by identifying the strake number , letter and frame number so that the exact location of the damage and also suggested repairs are marked in a localised copy.
  • The shell expansion can be used for finding areas of painting surfaces such as topside, boot topping and bottom areas by applying Simpsons rules directly. 
  • In the shell expansion the vertical scale used is different from the horizontal scale and a suitable adjustment has to be made when calculating areas.
  • This becomes useful in solving disputes concerning areas of preparation and painting.
  • It gives information on the thickness of the original strake which is indicated by the number in the circle shown in the strake. 
  • The quality of steel used is also shown by letters A,B,D E and AH, BH,DH, EH.


Drydock Stability

  • When the ship enters a dry dock, it must have a positive metacentric height; and is usually trimmed by stern. The floor of the dry dock is lined with keel blocks, which are so arranged such that they can bear the weight of the ship. When the ship enters the dry dock, her centerline is first brought in line with the centerline of the keel blocks by using a combination of plum lines and Leica theodolite.
  • The dock gates are then closed and the water is pumped out of the dock in stages. Since the ship has a trim by stern, the stern of the ship will first sit on the keel blocks. The rate of pumping out water is reduced as the stern is almost about to touch the keel blocks. The reason is, it is from this stage of the docking procedure when the stability of the ship starts getting critical. The interval of time from when the stern takes the blocks to the moment when the entire ship’s weight is borne by the blocks is called Critical Period. We will understand the details a little later.
  • When the stern of the ship takes the blocks, it is fixed to the shores (sides of the dock). This is carried out from aft to forward so that by the time the entire ship takes the blocks, it is fixed to the shores. When the ship is completely borne by the blocks, water is pumped out quickly from the dock.
  • When the ship’s stern just touches the keel blocks, part of the ship’s weight is being borne by the keel blocks. The contact between the stern and the keel block creates a normal reaction or upthrust. The magnitude of this upward normal reaction increases as the water level in the dry dock reduces. It is this upthrust that creates a virtual reduction in the metacentric height of the ship. Hence it is very crucial to maintain sufficient positive metacentric height before docking, lacking which, the ship may heel over to either side, or even slip off the keel blocks and capsize.
Three vertical parallel forces acting on the ship:
  • Weight (W) acting downward.
  • Keel block upthrust (P) acting upward.
  • Buoyancy (W-P) acting upward.
The upthrust force (P) can be considered to have an effect similar to that of removal of a weight from the ship. This has the virtual effect of rising the center of gravity of the ship from the point ‘G’ to ‘G1’. The metacentric height therefore reduces from GM to G1
H            Virtual rise in CG during dry docking.
The virtual reduction in metacentric height at any stage of the docking process can be calculated by the following expression:

  • This calculation must be carried out for the condition when the ship has just touched the keel blocks throughout its length. 
  • It is at this point that the keel block upthrust is maximum, and the risk of tipping over or slipping from keel blocks is most likely if the metacentric height is too low or negative



A step by step guide of how to operate ODME and principle of its operation

How does ODME do it
ODME controls the operation of two valves
  1. Valve to slop tank.
  2. Valve to overboard tank.
These two valve will never be open or close together. If one is open, the other will be in close position.

The formula for Instantaneous rate of discharge is
Now if ODME need to measure IRD, it surely need values for oil content in PPM and Flow rate.
  • Speed connection is usually given either from log or GPS.
  • All these values are fed to the computing unit of the ODME. 
  • Computing unit does all the mathematical calculations to get the required values. 
  • Most of the times you will find the computing unit in Cargo control room.
Flow rate
  • ODME computing unit gets the flow rate from flow meter. 
  • A small sample line goes from the main line, pass through the flow meter and goes back to the main line. 
  • Flow meter calculates the flow in m3/Hr and gives this value to the computing unit through a signal cable.
Measuring PPM
  • Measuring cell is the component that measures the amount of oil (in ppm) in the water. Measuring cell is located in a cabinet called “Analysing unit”. Most of the times you will find “Analysing unit” in the pump room.
  • The measuring principle relies upon the fact that different liquids have different light scattering characterstics. Based on the light scattering pattern of oil, measuring cell determines the oil content.
  • The sample water is passed through a quartz glass tube. And the oil content is determined by passing this sample water in different detectors in series.
  • But to measure PPM in a water sample, a sample from the discharge water need to pass through the measuring cell. This job is done by a sample pump.
  • Sample pump draws the sample from the discharge line before the discharge valves. This sample is sent to the measuring cell (in analysing unit) for measuring the oil content and then sent back into the same discharge line.
  • To clean the measuring cell, ODME runs cleaning cycle in pre-defined interval during its operation. The cleaning cycle involves flushing the cell with fresh water.

If the ODME has provision for detergent injection, the required amount of detergent will be injected during the cleaning cycle
We need to make sure that the detergent tanks is not empty and we use maker recommended detergent only.
Operation of ODME
  • Allow minimum 36 hours settling time
  • We will wash the tanks and collect the slops in slop tank. But before we can start pumping out oily water through ODME, we need to allow a minimum of 36 hours settling time. This settling time ensures that the oil has separated completely from the water.
  • We may argue that if our discharge is limited to 30L/NM, then what difference does it make with settling time ? But the fact is that even when we can use the ODME to discharge oily water, we must ensure that the oil is minimum in the water

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Which certificate is valid for Life time of ship

  • Tonnage certificate 
  • Safe Manning certificate 
  • Enhanced survey report 
  • International Energy efficiency certificate
  • CSR
  • Certificate of registry
  • All are permanent until and unless any major conversions are done


Measures for improving ship efficiency

  • Maintaining the Engine and equipment in order as Per PMS.
  • Fuel injector, T/C, EGB routine maintenance, proper  Injection timing , VIT adjustment.
  • Regular Propeller and Hull cleaning .
  • ICCP proper use of right amp and current to avoid the fouling.
  • Avoid unnecessary running of DG unless safety requirement.
  • Achieve optimum trim (not by head down)
  • Efficient operation of deck cranes
  • Closing boiler steam for undesirable bunker tanks

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Power to weight ratio

  • Power to Weight ratio is the ratio of horsepower produced to the weight of the engine itself.
  • With high-speed or high-performance vessels, it is the most important criterion to use when comparing engines between two different makers since weight on these vessels is often critical, with vessel speed being the most important aspect of many military missions.
  • Higher weight always equals higher displacement equals lower speed On commercial vessels, displacement is critical due to cost.
  • Higher displacement requires more fuel to move the vessel.
  • More fuel means higher cost of operation.


Carbon foot print

  • The total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • Carbon dioxide is a so called greenhouse gas causing global warming .
  • Other greenhouse gases which might be emitted as a result of your activities are e.g. methane and ozone.
  • These greenhouse gases are normally also taken into account for the carbon footprint.
  • They are converted into the amount of CO2 that would cause the same effects on global warming (this is called equivalent CO2 amount).
  • Your carbon footprint is the sum of all emissions of CO2 (carbon dioxide), which were induced by your activities in a given time frame.
  • Usually a carbon footprint is calculated for the time period of a year.

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Water Ingress Alarm

  • The water ingress alarm is in place seeing as the ingress of water may taint or corrupt the cargo/commodity being carried on a bulk carrier.
  • For example, SOLAS states that “In each cargo hold, giving audible and visual alarms, one when the water level above the inner bottom in any hold reaches a height of 0.5m and another at a height not less than 15% of the depth of the cargo hold but not more than 2.0 m”.
  • Also, check and maintain water ingress alarm in the area located at the forward of the cargo area.


Actions in case of Main Engine liner cracked

The engine cannot be run long in this condition. The leaking water is finding its way into the lubricating oil. The liner has to be changed.
The most logical step to take then is to isolate the faulty cylinder. It can be done.
  • Stop engine, isolate systems and allow to cool
  • Ensure a procedure is written that minimises the risk to personnel during the operation.
  • Discuss the task and written procedure with the engine room personnel to ensure they are familiar with the risks, and the methods to be used to minimise these risks.
  • Ensure the fuel pump is de-activated by lifting roller and locking.
  • Lift exhaust valve actuators so exhaust valve remains closed during running. (Note: the air spring supply to be left open)
  • Dismantle air start supply line, and blank with suitable steel plates, the main and control air pipes
  • Blank off main lube oil inlet to crosshead within the crankcase with a blanking plate.
  • Isolate the cylinder lubricator for that cylinder by placing all lubricators on no stroke.
  • Blank cooling water inlet and oulet.
The usual practice is to open up the cylinder head, remove the piston, and close back the cylinder head. All the passages that are connected to other parts of the engine will have to be blanked, so that the whole cylinder is completely isolated from the engine systems.
Since there is no piston in one of the cylinders of the engine, the crankshaft will be temporarily off-balanced. The engine has to be run at a much slower speed to avoid excessive vibration and unnecessary stress that can cause further damage.


Difficulties during manoeurvring with M/E one unit isolated

  • Ln one engine cylinder is isolated, then one problem that may occur is a “dead spot” during manoeuvring. 
  • This is due to the air start valve being isolated for that unit, and is more likely when a smaller number of cylinders are present. 
  • The Master must be informed that this could occur, and the remedy would be to kick the engine in the opposite direction, and then restart in the required direction


Overheating of Main Engine Piston

  • Inadequate circulation of cooling media and or supply not sufficient
  • Excessive deposit in cooling space (scale or carbon)
  • Lubrication not sufficient
  • Faulty piston ring : clearance inadequate. 
  • Too high temperature 
  • top ring groove area – blow by.
  • Distorted cylinder liner
  • Misalignment of piston
  • Overloading of unit – excessive fuel
  • Excessive water content in fuel
  • Insufficient air from turbocharger or manifold
  • Late injection of fuel – timing or fault injectors
  • Engine running slow speed – full flow of coolant not maintained
  • Slow down the engine to a very low speed but NOT complete shutdown. This results in considerable reduction of heat in the relevant piston.
  • Since not all pistons would likely develop this fault simultaneously (unless you are totally out of luck that day) so first identify the particular cylinder in which the problem has occurred using parameters such as temperatures, sound etc.
  • The fuel supply to the affected cylinder should be cut-down from the fuel pump
  • Lubrication to that cylinder should be increased from the appropriate arrangement depending on the specific engine under consideration
  • Only stop the engine when it is sufficiently cooled to avoid any thermal stresses. Even after stopping the turning gear should be used to keep it moving for some time while cooling and lubrication is continued.
  • Finally the piston needs to be dismantled and checked and this is a detailed procedure which we might take up in future


Double evaporation boilers

  • A double evaporation boiler uses two independent systems for steam generation and therefore avoids any contamination between the primary and secondary feedwater.
  • The primary circuit is in effect a conventional watertube boiler which provides steam to the heating coils of a steam-to-steam generator, which is the secondary system.
  • The main reason for the adoption of this design of boilers is to allow use of modern high efficiency watertube boilers witghout fear of damage through contamination by cargo or fuel oils.The basic design consists of a D-Type boiler design upon which is mounted a Steam/Steam generator drum.
  • The steam generated by the main boiler heats water in the Steam/Steam generator which produces steam requirements.
  • The primary drum is initially filled with high quality feed water and suitably dosed.
  • The  main  reasonfor  the  adoption  of  double  evaporation  boilers  in  tankers are  concerned  of  damage  caused  by  oil  and  sulphur  which  enters  the  feed  systems  through  leaky  steam  heating  coils  used  for  heating  the  oil  in  cargo  tanks.


Regulations and Requirements for IG Blowers

  • Minimum 2 number of blower to be fitted in I.G system.
  • The capacity of each blower must be 1.25 times the overall capacity of the cargo discharge system fitted on board. This is to ensure that Inert Gas is always present in the cargo hold.
  • Only 1 blower may be permitted by the administration if it fulfills the requirement stated in above point i.e. capacity must be 1.25 time cargo pumps and required spares are always available.
  • A shut off arrangement must be provided in the suction and discharge connection side of the blowers.
  • Generally the blowers are used for gas freeing hence an n air inlet with blanking arrangement must be provided. At normal operation, blanking arrangement is to be secured.
  • Cargo tanks are pressure tested at 2500 mm water gauge and 700mm water gauge on the vacuum side. The blower pressure must not exceed the test pressure else the tank will get damage.
  •  Minimum pressure to be maintained by blower is 200 mm water gauge in cargo tank.
  • There must be high temperature alarm (@ around 65 deg c) and a high temperature trip (@ around 75 deg c) to safeguard the blower.
  • The driving media for blower can be either steam or electrical power.
  • The blowers must be located at aft of the cargo tanks and cargo pump room of the ship.


Condition Monitoring

  • Condition monitoring (or, colloquially, CM) is the process of monitoring a parameter of condition in machinery (vibration, temperature etc.), in order to identify a significant change which is indicative of a developing fault. It is a major component of predictive maintenance. 
  • The use of condition monitoring allows maintenance to be scheduled, or other actions to be taken to prevent failure and avoid its consequences. 
  • Condition monitoring has a unique benefit in that conditions that would shorten normal lifespan can be addressed before they develop into a major failure. 
  • Condition monitoring techniques are normally used on rotating equipment and other machinery (pumps, electric motors, internal combustion engines, presses),
Condition monitoring techniques
  • Vibration and shock pulse data measured from all machinery. On the spot analysis and interpretation of results.
  • Thermo graphic inspection of all electrical and some critical mechanical systems.
  • Pressure and vacuum leak detection using passive ultrasonic frequency methods.
  • Thickness measurement of critical machinery systems.
  • Main and auxiliary engines performance test and power balance analysis.Detailed machinery health assessment report.
  • Help maximize the availability of your critical and auxiliary machinery
  • Simplify maintenance and reduce maintenance costs
  • Give an early indication of possible problems
  • When a machine is operating properly, the vibration is small and constant, however, when faults develop and some of the dynamic process in the machine changes, there will be changes in vibration spectrum observed.
When a fault takes places, some of the machine parameters are subjected to change. The change in the machine parameters depends upon the degree of faults and the interaction with other parameters.
In most cases, more than one parameter are subjected to change under abnormal condition.
Condition monitoring can be carried out when the equipment is in operation, which known as on-line, or when it is off-line, which means when it is down and not in the operation.
While on-line, the critical parameters that are possible to monitor are speed, temperature, vibration, and sound. These may be continuously monitored or may be done periodically. Off-line monitoring is carried out when the machine is down for whatever reason.
The monitoring in such would include crack detection, a thoroughly check of alignment, state of balancing, the search for tell-tale sign of corrosion, pitting, and so on.
Vibration signals are the most versatile parameters in machine condition monitoring techniques.
Periodic vibration checks reveal whether troubles are present or impending. Vibration signature analysis reveals which part of the machine is defective and why.
 Although a number of vibration analysis techniques have been developed for this purpose, still a lot of scope is there to reach a stage of expertise.

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Wear rate of liner

  • For Two Stroke engine a wear rate of 0.1 mm per 1000 hour is normal.
  • Maximum acceptable rate is 0.25 mm per 1000 hr.
  • Maximum total wear is acceptable is 0.75% of bore.
  • Useful life span: 70,000 - 80,000 hours
  • For Four Stroke engine the wear rate is 0.02 mm per 1000 hours


Heating Rods for Refrigeration Compressor Oil Heating

  • The refrigeration compressors are delivered in a standard execution with built-in heating coils or rod in the crankcase.
  • The purpose of the heating coil or rod is to keep the oil in the crankcase warm even during standstill of the compressor. This ensures a low content of refrigerant in the oil.
  • Too much refrigerant in the oil makes it loose its lubricating properties. This may lead to damage of the movable parts in the compressor.
  • Further, the danger exists that the oil, during start-up of the compressor, foams so vigorously that the lubricating pressure will disappear.
  • Before start-up the heating rod should be switched on for at least 8 hours.
  • The heating coil or rod must not be switched on if the oil level in the vessel is below minimum in the sight glass. While the compressor is operating, it is usually switched off.
  • Further, remember to switch off the heating rod if the compressor crankcase is opened for inspection.


Destructive and Non-Destructive test

Destructive test
  • Test on test pieces Damaged after test.
  • Determine mechanical properties of test piece under test.
  1. Tensile test 
  2. Impact Test   
  3. Fatigue Test
  4. Bend test 
  5. Hardness Test 
  6. Creep Test
Non-Destructive Test
  • Test on components. Not damaged after test
  • Determine flaws or imperfection during manufacture (or) service.
  1. Liquid penetrating  
  2. Electrical test method
  3. Ultrasonic method  
  4. Radiographic inspection
  5. Magnetic crack detection

Destructive test
Tensile Test

  • Tensile test is used to determine the behaviour of a material up to its breaking point.
  • A special shape specimen of standard size is gripped in the jaws of a testing machine. A load is gradually applied to draw the ends of the specimen apart such that it is subject to tensile stress up to yield point.
  • The highest value of stress is known as the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) of the material.
Bend Test
  • Specimen is bent through an angle of 180 with internal radius of 1.5 times the thickness of the specimen without cracking at edges.
Impact Test
  • Testing machine basically consists of a pendulum which is raised and allowed to fall, striking and rupturing the specimen.
  • In swinging through its arc of travel past specimen, pendulum assume a lower position at end of its travel due to loss of   energy when it strikes the specimen.
  • Energy given up to the specimen is its impact strength.
Hardness Test
  • Hardness test consist hardened steel ball impressing into metal at given pressure for predetermine time.
  • Load is 3000 kg for steel and 500 kg for soft metals such as brasses and bronzes.
  • Diameter impression indicates the hardness number.
Fatigue Test
  • 'Fatigue' is defined as the failure of a material due to repeatedly applied stress.
  • The specimen is rotated under load in a testing machine. So it is subject to tension and compression stresses alternately.
  • The number of cycles imposed before is recorded.
Creep Test
  • Creep test use to find safe working stress for material working at high temperature
  • It is permanent deformation resulting from loading over long period of time
  • Test piece mount vertically and constant tensile load under constant temperature.
  • Temperature range between 600’C to 1000’C and test period is 1000,10000,100000 hours

Non-Destructive Test
Liquid penetrate test
  • Industrial method, indicate presence crack, lamination lap and surface porosity.
  • Fluorescent dye method and Aerosol dye method.
Fluorescent dye method
  • First, the surface is cleaned using a volatile cleaner and degreaser.
  • Then a fluorescent dye is applied and a certain time allowed for it to enter any flaws under capillary action.
  • Then the surface is wiped clean using the cleaning spray.
  • An ultra violet light is shone on the surface, any flaws showing up as the dye fluorescent.
Aerosol dye method
  • The more commonly used dye penetrant method is similar in application.
  • The surface is cleaned and the low viscosity penetrant is sprayed on.
  • After a set time, the surface is cleaned again.
  • Then a developer is used which coats the surface in a fine white chalky dust.
  • The dye seeps out and stains the developer typically a red colour.
Ultrasonic Test
  • Probe of test equipment transmits high frequency sound waves about 0.5 MHz to 20 MHz which reflected by any flaws in object
  • Reflected sound waves displayed on monitor screen of cathode ray oscilloscope.
  • Suitable for detection, identification and size assessment of a wide variety of both surface and sub-surface defects in materials.
  • Measured thickness of material or to detect internal or surface defects in welds, casting or forging either during manufacture or when in service.
Radiographic Test
  • Image produced on film.
  • X rays and gamma rays are used for inspection of welds, castings, forging and pressure vessels etc.
  • Exposure time for x-rays and gamma rays vary with type of material, thickness and the intensity of rays.
  • Faults in the metal effect the intensity of rays which passes through the material
  • Film exposed by the rays gives the shadow photograph
  • Used on both metallic and nonmetallic material, both ferrous and non-ferrous metal


Consequences of running an engine with slack Tie bolts:

  • Cylinder beam would flex and lift at the location of the slack bolt landing faces of the tie bolt upper and lower nuts, landing faces of the cylinder beam on the frame would fret and machined faces would eventually get destroyed.
  • The fitted bracing bolts between the cylinder jackets will also slacken and the fit of the bolts would be lost.
  • If fretting has occurred in an uneven pattern where the cylinder beam lands, and the tie bolts are tightened, the alignment of cylinder to the piston stroke will be destroyed. The fitted bracing bolts between the cylinder jackets will also slacken and fit of the bolts will be lost.
  • Fretting may make the nut landing face out of square and if tie bolts are tightened on the damaged face, a bending moment will be induced in the tie bolt, this may cause an uneven stress pattern in the tie bolt which could lead to early fatigue failure. Damage may take place in the bedplate in way of cross girder.                                                          
  • Rigidity of the whole structure will be destroyed. Guide force will have to be absorbed by the frame bolts and dowels, which may stretch and slacken allowing the structure to ‘work’.  This may destroy the piston alignment.   Guide faces and bars may get slackened (these are bolted to the supporting structure)


Difference between Slow speed , Medium speed and High speed engines


Operating Cycles

OTTO CYCLE (Constant Volume Combustion Cycle).
  • It is the ideal air standard cycle for Petrol engine, the gas engine and the high-speed oil engine.
  • The engines based on this cycle have high thermal efficiency but noisiness results particularly at higher power due to higher pressures in the cylinders.

DIESEL CYCLE (Constant Pressure Combustion Cycle).
  • It is the ideal Air standard cycle for Diesel Engine, especially suitable for low speed Diesel Engine but not for high speed Diesel Engine.
  • The thermal efficiency is lower than Otto cycle engines but engines run smoothly due to lower pressures in the cylinder.

DUAL COMBUSTION CYCLE (Constant Pressure and Constant Volume Combustion Cycle).
  • Modern Diesel Engines do not operate purely on constant pressure combustion cycle but some part of combustion process takes place at constant volume while the rest is completed at constant pressure.
  • In general, this cycle resembles Constant volume combustion Cycle more than constant pressure combustion cycle. It is suitable for modern Medium and High Speed Diesel Engines.
  • The thermal efficiency is more than Diesel Cycle but less than Otto cycle. Also noise level is in between the two. This is a more practical engine.


p Alkalinity and m Alkalinity

What is p Alkalinity?
  • The  term  p  Alkalinity  stands  for  “Phenolphthalein  –  Alkalinity”. 
  •  It  is  the  measurement  of Hydroxide and carbonate ion amount. 
  • It is determined by titrating a water sample with an acid of a known concentration in the presence of phenolphthalein as the indicator.
 What is m Alkalinity?
  • The  total  measurement  of  Hydroxide  bicarbonate  and  carbonate  ions amount is given by m Alkalinity. The letter m refers to Methyl orange.
  • It is the indicator that is used to determine the total alkalinity given by the above hydroxide and carbonate species.
  • When methyl orange is added, it gives its color change only  in its pH range which is, 3.1  –  4.4. Since only  trace  concentrations  of  other  acids  are  dissolved  in  water  except  for  carbonic  acid,  m Alkalinity can be considered as the total alkalinity because it gives the total carbonate alkalinity.
What is the difference between p Alkalinity and m Alkalinity?

p Alkalinity vs m Alkalinity
  • p alkalinity is the measurement of alkalinity given by hydroxide ions and half of the carbonate alkalinity.
  • m alkalinity is the measurement of alkalinity given by hydroxide ions and total carbonate alkalinity.
  • Phenolphthalein indicator is used to determine p alkalinity.
  • Methyl orange is used to determine m alkalinity.
pH Range
  • p alkalinity is measured at a range of 8.3 –10.0 pH.
  • m alkalinity is measured at a pH range of 3.1 – 4.4.