### GZ curves of stability

• Graph where GZ is plotted against the angle of heel.
• Drawn for each voyage condition by the ship’s officer.
• This curve is for a particular displacement and KG.
From this curve it is possible to ascertain the following:
• Initial metacentric height – point of intersection of the tangent drawn to the curve at the initial point and a vertical through the angle of heel of 57.3° (1 radian)
• Angle of contra flexure – the angle of heel up to which the rate of increase of GZ with heel is increasing. Though the GZ may increase further, the rate of increase of GZ begins to decrease at this angle.
• The range of stability – where all GZ values are positive.
• The maximum GZ lever & the angle at which it occurs.
• The angle of vanishing stability – beyond which the vessel will capsize.
• The area of negative stability.
• The moment of statical stability at any given angle of heel (GZ x Displacement of the ship).
• The moment of dynamical stability – work done in heeling the ship to a particular angle.
Dynamical stability at Ã¨ = W x A (in t-m-rad)
W = Displacement (in tonnes)
A = area between the curve and the baseline up to the given angle of heel (in metre-radians).

Assumption:
• The ship's center of gravity does NOT change position as the angle of heel is changed.
• The ship's center of buoyancy is always at thegeometric center of the ship's underwater hull
• The shape of the ship's underwater hull changesas the angle of heel changes.

### Differences between MC/MC-C and ME/ME-C engines

The electrohydraulic control mechanisms of the ME engine replace the following components of the conventional MC engine: Chain drive for camshaft Camshaft with fuel cams, exhaust cams and indicator cams Fuel pump actuating gear, including roller guides and reversing mechanism Conventional fuel pressure booster and VIT system Exhaust valve actuating gear and roller guides Engine driven starting air distributor Electronic governor with actuator Regulating shaft Engine side control console Mechanical cylinder lubricators. The Engine Control System of the ME engine comprises: Control units Hydraulic power supply unit Hydraulic cylinder units, including: Electronically controlled fuel injection, and Electronically controlled exhaust valve activation Electronically controlled starting air valves Electronically controlled auxiliary blowers Integrated electronic governor functions Tacho system Electronically controlled Alpha lubricators

### Why is a man hole door elliptical in shape?

Any opening in a pressure vessel is kept to a minimum and for a man entry an elliptical hole  is lesser in size than the corresponding circular hole. More over it is prime concern to have a  smoothed generous radius at the corners to eliminate stress concentration. Hence other  geometrical shapes like rectangle and square are ruled out.  To compensate for the loss of material in the shell due to opening, a doubler ring has to be  provided around the opening. The thickness of the ring depends on the axis length along the  dirrection in which the stresses are maximum and the thickness of the shell. It is important to  align the minor axis along the length of the vessel, as the stress in this direction is  maximum. Longitudinal stress: Pd/2t where P= pressure inside the vessel, d= diameter of the arc, t=  thickness of the shell plating  Circumferential stress: Pd/4t  More over a considerable material and weight saving is achieved as minor is along the  direction of maximum stress.

### Main engine interlocks

Interlocks are provided so that the engine can be started or reversed only when certain conditions have been fulfilled. When there is a remote control of engines, it is essential to have interlocks. This reduces the possibility of engine damage and any hazards to the operating personnel. Turning gear Interlock . This device prevents the engine from being started if the Turning gear is engaged. Running Direction Interlock . This prevents the fuel from being supplied if the running direction of the engine does not match the Telegraph. Starting Air Distributor in end position . This prevents starting from taking place if the shifting of the Distributor has not been completed. Main Lube. oil pressure, Piston cooling pressure, Jacket water pressure, and important parameters must be above the required minimum. Auxiliary Blower Interlock . The Auxiliary Blower is provided in case of Constant pressure turbo charging. Air Spring pressure Interlock . In case of the present generation