- Check tensioning
- Adjacent cylinder head seen lifting.
- Pressing thumb in contact with cylinder jacket and nail in contact with tie bolt nut - small movement
- Fretting wear
- Visually - the cylinder head at adjacent of the slacknor broken tie rod can be seen lifting up during end of compression stroke or at firing stroke
- By dial gauge - Put dial gauge between cylinder head bolt and tie rod nut. See the deflection in the gauge.
- Washer -If washer fitted between the tir rod bolt and nut , then it can be seen twisted during the firing stroke or at the end of compression stroke
Any opening in a pressure vessel is kept to a minimum and for a man entry an elliptical hole is lesser in size than the corresponding circular hole. More over it is prime concern to have a smoothed generous radius at the corners to eliminate stress concentration. Hence other geometrical shapes like rectangle and square are ruled out. To compensate for the loss of material in the shell due to opening, a doubler ring has to be provided around the opening. The thickness of the ring depends on the axis length along the dirrection in which the stresses are maximum and the thickness of the shell. It is important to align the minor axis along the length of the vessel, as the stress in this direction is maximum. Longitudinal stress: Pd/2t where P= pressure inside the vessel, d= diameter of the arc, t= thickness of the shell plating Circumferential stress: Pd/4t More over a considerable material and weight saving is achieved as minor is along the direction of maximum stress.