- All classification society or IACS requires tha all machinery under their rules must be surveyed every 5 years due to heavy load .
- They allow some items to be surveyed in rotation curve of anual cycle (20%) .Then survey will over by 5 years . So it is called CSM.
- Class will allow C\E to survey that class surveyor to credit the survey at anual levels
Any opening in a pressure vessel is kept to a minimum and for a man entry an elliptical hole is lesser in size than the corresponding circular hole. More over it is prime concern to have a smoothed generous radius at the corners to eliminate stress concentration. Hence other geometrical shapes like rectangle and square are ruled out. To compensate for the loss of material in the shell due to opening, a doubler ring has to be provided around the opening. The thickness of the ring depends on the axis length along the dirrection in which the stresses are maximum and the thickness of the shell. It is important to align the minor axis along the length of the vessel, as the stress in this direction is maximum. Longitudinal stress: Pd/2t where P= pressure inside the vessel, d= diameter of the arc, t= thickness of the shell plating Circumferential stress: Pd/4t More over a considerable material and weight saving is achieved as minor is along the direction of maximum stress.