- If excessive fuel oil temperature is permitted and if there is no separate cooling is given to the injector and the circulating fuel itself is part of cooling system, in such conditions the hot fuel oil will keep the nozzle at high temperature. This will cause damage to the fuel injector because at higher temperature the fuel injector nozzle and the valve seats will lose its strength and it will fail.
- Secondly, if the engine is working at high load for long time, the fuel injector nozzle will be subjected to high temperature from the combustion space due to which the fuel injector nozzle may get damaged.
- Thirdly, if the quality of the fuel is bad, there is a possibility that hard carbon deposits may be formed. Also the needle guide may get coated with hard varnish and because of this the fuel oil nozzle operation may get affected and it would ultimately cause to seep in place or have excessive weardown and it will get damaged.
Any opening in a pressure vessel is kept to a minimum and for a man entry an elliptical hole is lesser in size than the corresponding circular hole. More over it is prime concern to have a smoothed generous radius at the corners to eliminate stress concentration. Hence other geometrical shapes like rectangle and square are ruled out. To compensate for the loss of material in the shell due to opening, a doubler ring has to be provided around the opening. The thickness of the ring depends on the axis length along the dirrection in which the stresses are maximum and the thickness of the shell. It is important to align the minor axis along the length of the vessel, as the stress in this direction is maximum. Longitudinal stress: Pd/2t where P= pressure inside the vessel, d= diameter of the arc, t= thickness of the shell plating Circumferential stress: Pd/4t More over a considerable material and weight saving is achieved as minor is along the direction of maximum stress.